Developments in Mediterranean Diplomacy

december 2022

Inter-state relations in the Mediterranean are fluctuating between cooperation and tensions. While regional opportunities and spaces for dialogue emerge, differences and rivalries still fuel conflicts. “Developments in Mediterranean Diplomacy” presents a monthly overview of events in support of efforts to improve relations between countries in the Mediterranean, promote regional cooperation, increase inclusivity, resolve conflicts, and advance peace.




Normalization efforts are taking place between Türkiye and Syria, following Ankara’s stated willingness to restore ties with Damascus. These efforts are supported by Russia, which hosted a meeting between the respective defense ministers. Efforts are underway to convene additional high-level meetings.


The reconciliation process between Türkiye and Israel was further formalized, as newly-appointed ambassadors from both countries officially began working, four-and-a-half years after a de-facto downgrading of ties. In addition, an Israeli trade delegation visited Turkey to meet Turkish exporters.


Full consular relations have been restored between France and Morocco. The heads of states spoke on the phone; the foreign ministers met in Rabat, expressing interest in “writing a new page together“; and officials discussed the advancement of parliamentary cooperation. French President Macron is expected in Morocco in early 2023




Turkish President Erdoğan threatened a military attack against Greece, should it expand its territorial waters in the Aegean. Türkiye and Libya sent a joint letter to the UN against Greece in that regard. In an effort to reduce tensions, Germany convened a meeting in Brussels with Turkish and Greek top officials.


Through a Presidential decree, Egypt unilaterally drew its maritime border with Libya. The move was rejected by Libya’s Government of National Unity and by the Libyan Parliament. Türkiye urged Egypt and Libya to launch negotiations for the demarcation of their maritime border.

Other issues

November 2022